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The philosophy of the Ministry of Public Health is the social support and service to the most vulnerable population,[131] and its main plan of action lies around communitarian health and preventive medicine.[131]. [citation needed] These include canned foods, liquor, jewelry, furniture, and more. Because of its location at the equator, Ecuador experiences little variation in daylight hours during the course of a year. [85] The country's vast resources include large amounts of timber across the country, like eucalyptus and mangroves. About 300 institutes of higher education offer two to three years of post-secondary vocational or technical training. The northern faction headed by Atahualpa claimed that Huayna Capac gave a verbal decree before his death about how the empire should be divided. It will enhance any encyclopedic page you visit with the magic of the WIKI 2 technology. Moreover, the Cauca region, throughout its long history, had very strong economic and cultural ties with the people of Ecuador. [42], According to HRW, Correa's government has weakened the freedom of press and independence of the judicial system. This region is a leading producer of bananas, cocoa beans (to make chocolate), shrimp, tilapia, mango, and passion fruit, among other products. A Day in the life. In addition, there is a small European Jewish (Ecuadorian Jews) population, which is based mainly in Quito and to a lesser extent in Guayaquil. For Ecuadorian researchers and many academicians trained in the country, these regulations sounded illogical, disappointing, and unlawful since it appeared a question of a title name conflict rather than specialization or science advancement. Places like Quito, the capital, are close to 10,000 feet (3000 meters) high! Annual Weather Averages in Cuenca. At the same time, the country's Gini index of economic inequality decreased from 0.55 to 0.47.[24]. Here are some average weather facts we collected from our historical climate data: The warmest month is January with an average maximum temperature of 22°C (71°F). The Ecuadorian Institute of Social Security (IESS) has several major hospitals and medical sub-centers under its administration across the nation.[133]. The best time of year to visit Mindo in Ecuador. The icons of the Ecuadorian military forces are Marshall Antonio José de Sucre and General Eloy Alfaro. The western ridge receives more rainfall as the air mass rises higher to get over the top. He also left the left-wing Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas in August 2018. Branch members hold office for five years. Over time these groups began to interact and intermingle with each other so that groups of families in one area became one community or tribe, with a similar language and culture. On May 6, 1904, Ecuador signed the Tobar-Rio Branco Treaty recognizing Brazil's claims to the Amazon in recognition of Ecuador's claim to be an Amazonian country to counter Peru's earlier Treaty with Brazil back on October 23, 1851. In Ecuador's current judicial system, judges are selected in a contest of merits, rather than government appointments. A debate to modify this and other reforms, especially the one which granted control of the Higher Education System by the government, was practically passed with consensus by the multi-partisan National Assembly on August 4, 2010, but vetoed by President Rafael Correa, who wanted to keep the law strictly as it was originally redacted by his political party and SENPLADES (National Secretary of Planning and Development). The maps below show you the climate types and annual average rainfall of Ecuador. In addition, the government waives the right to tax increases in raw material prices and foreign exchange repatriations. I t is interesting to see that in the tropics very few Latin Americans distinguish between climate and weather and they use the two words for both meanings. In 1972, construction of the Andean pipeline was completed. Its largest city is Guayaquil, in the Guayas Province. 9 Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons", "Niveles administrativos de planificación", "Región 4 – Santo Domingo, Manabí y Galápagos", "Ecuador: A Comparative Atlas of Defence in Latin America / 2008 Edition", History of the "Escuela Superior Militar Eloy Alfaro", "History of the 'Escuela Superior Militar de Aviacion Cosme Rennella, "European banks urged to stop funding oil trade in Amazon", "Exclusive: European banks face indigenous calls to end Amazon oil trade", "Oil Exploitation in the Amazon Basin of Ecuador: A Public Health Emergency", "How the Environmental Lawyer Who Won a Massive Judgment Against Chevron Lost Everything", "Yahoo! Citizens with no formal employment may still contribute to the social security system voluntarily and have access to the medical services rendered by the social security system. The electoral system functions by authorities which enter only every four years or when elections or referendums occur. Ecuador is a country of variety. The Supreme Council included two other members: General Guillermo Durán Arcentales and General Luis Leoro Franco. It was inaugurated on March 8, 2019. The coastal low­lands in the west­ern part of Ecuador are typ­i­cally warm with tem­per­a­tures in the re­gion of 25 °C (77 °F). April is the most wet month. The indigenous people of the Amazon jungle and coastal Ecuador remained relatively autonomous until the Spanish soldiers and missionaries arrived in force. The average temperature annually is 64 °F (17.8 °C). Judges are renewed by thirds every three years pursuant to the Judicial Code. Later, a brief war erupted between Colombia and Peru, over Peru's claims to the Caquetá region, which ended with Peru reluctantly signing the Salomon-Lozano Treaty on March 24, 1922. The major areas of scientific research in Ecuador have been in the medical fields, tropical and infectious diseases treatments, agricultural engineering, pharmaceutical research, and bioengineering. [47] In 2017, Ecuador signed the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons.[48]. [1] Contents. However, the process of selection has been criticized as biased and subjective. The diversity of its four regions has given rise to thousands of species of flora and fauna. The first university in the city was established in 1867 and is the Universidad de Cuenca. The war ended when a triumphant heavily outnumbered southern Gran Colombian army at Battle of Tarqui dated February 27, 1829, led by Antonio José de Sucre, defeated the Peruvian invasion force led by President La Mar. Various peoples had settled in the area of future Ecuador before the arrival of the Incas. But, after a mock trial, the Spaniards executed Atahualpa by strangulation. [71] In 2011, its GDP grew at 8% and ranked 3rd highest in Latin America, behind Argentina (2nd) and Panama (1st). [2] Coastal areas are affected by ocean currents and are hot and rainy between January and April.[3]. The Pastaza is formed by the confluence of the Chambo and the Patate rivers, both of which rise in the Sierra. The climate here is classified as Aw by the Köppen-Geiger system. In the Highland Andes where a predominantly Mestizo, white and Amerindian population exist, the African presence is almost non-existent except for a small community in the province of Imbabura called Chota Valley. During its negotiations with Brazil, Peru stated that based on the royal cedula of 1802, it claimed Amazonian Basin territories up to Caqueta River in the north and toward the Andes Mountain range, depriving Ecuador and Colombia of all their claims to the Amazon Basin. Judges and prosecutors that have made decisions in favor of Correa in his lawsuits have received permanent posts, while others with better assessment grades have been rejected. The conservative Gabriel Garcia Moreno unified the country in the 1860s with the support of the Roman Catholic Church. In Ecuador it is the "national genre of music". Its climate and landscape varies from one end of the country to the other. Regionalization, or zoning, is the union of two or more adjoining provinces in order to decentralize the administrative functions of the capital, Quito. Part of Ecuador's population can speak Amerindian languages, in some cases as a second language. Pizarro promised to release Atahualpa if he made good his promise of filling a room full of gold. The population has been motivated by government failures to deliver on promises of land reform, lower unemployment and provision of social services, and historical exploitation by the land-holding elite. On July 21, 1924, the Ponce-Castro Oyanguren Protocol was signed between Ecuador and Peru where both agreed to hold direct negotiations and to resolve the dispute in an equitable manner and to submit the differing points of the dispute to the United States for arbitration. Nonetheless, a "médico" can start a career as family practitioner or general medicine physician. Therefore, an MD or PhD in medicine is only to be obtained overseas until the universities adjust themselves to granting schemes and curriculum as in foreign counterparts. A lower number of other Europeans and North Americans migrated to the country in the late 19th and early twentieth centuries and, in smaller numbers, Poles, Lithuanians, English, Irish, and Croats during and after the Second World War. It can be noted that, after World War I, people from Liguria, still constituted the majority of the flow, even though they then represented only one third of the total number of immigrants in Ecuador. So influential was the military in Ecuador in the early republican period that its first decade was under the control of General Juan José Flores, first president of Ecuador of Venezuelan origin. While Ecuador can’t exactly be labeled as a major contributor to climate change (it’s responsible for about 0.1-0.2 percent of yearly greenhouse gas emissions), factors inside the country are poised to worsen the already negative effects. The public healthcare system allows patients to be treated without an appointment in public general hospitals by general practitioners and specialists in the outpatient clinic (Consulta Externa) at no cost. [31] He brought Ecuador into the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas in June 2009. Spanish is the official language and is spoken by a majority of the population, though 13 Native languages are also recognized, including Quechua and Shuar. In recognition of its unique ecological heritage, the new constitution of 2008 is the first in the world to recognize legally enforceable Rights of nature, or ecosystem rights. The use of Quipu was banned by the Spanish,[121] and in order to preserve their work, many Inca poets had to resort to the use of the Latin alphabet to write in their native Quechua language. Overbilling is recorded in 20% of public establishments and in 80% of private establishments. One of these Peruvian Generals was the Ecuadorian-born José de La Mar, who became one of Peru's presidents after Bolivar resigned as dictator of Peru and returned to Colombia. The Napo rises near Mount Cotopaxi and is the major river used for transport in the eastern lowlands. Ecuador Climate: The Andes. The pipeline brought oil from the east side of the Andes to the coast, making Ecuador South America's second largest oil exporter. The weather in Quito is consistent with that of a subtropical highland climate. The National Court of Justice is composed of 21 judges elected for a term of nine years. The Amerindian people of Tigua, Ecuador, are also world-renowned[citation needed] for their traditional paintings. Ecuador has negotiated bilateral treaties with other countries, besides belonging to the Andean Community of Nations,[90] and an associate member of Mercosur. Another major project is developing the road Manta – Tena, the highway Guayaquil – Salinas Highway Aloag Santo Domingo, Riobamba – Macas (which crosses Sangay National Park). We will focus on measures of temperature and precipitation, followed by some discussion of the role of ENSO. [61] A program begun in 2008, Sociobosque, is preserving another 2.3% of total land area (6,295 km2, or 629,500 ha) by paying private landowners or community landowners (such as Amerindian tribes) incentives to maintain their land as native ecosystems such as native forests or grasslands. [111], A prominent East Asian Latino community mainly consists of those of Japanese and Chinese descent, whose ancestors arrived as miners, farmhands and fishermen in the late 19th century. The first and most substantial wave of modern immigration to Ecuador consisted of Spanish colonists, following the arrival of Europeans in 1499. Many of them were born in Guayaquil, such as: Alfredo Pareja Diezcanseco (1908, Guayaquil – d. 1993, Quito) Araceli Gilbert (b. The Ecuadorian State consists of five branches of government: the Executive Branch, the Legislative Branch, the Judicial Branch, the Electoral Branch, and Transparency and Social Control. [citation needed], There is a small number of Eastern Orthodox Christians, Amerindian religions, Muslims (see Islam in Ecuador), Buddhists and Baháʼí. De Velasco wrote about the nations and chiefdoms that had existed in the Kingdom of Quito (today Ecuador) before the arrival of the Spanish. [62], Despite being on the UNESCO list, the Galápagos are endangered by a range of negative environmental effects, threatening the existence of this exotic ecosystem. [92][93][94] In April 2007, Ecuador paid off its debt to the IMF, thus ending an era of interventionism of the Agency in the country. The highlands feature a central valley high in the Andes, with mountain ridges on each side. He announced that the country would default on over $3 billion worth of bonds; he then pledged to fight creditors in international courts and succeeded in reducing the price of outstanding bonds by more than 60%. The antivirus program Checkprogram, banking protection system MdLock, and Core Banking Software Cobis are products of Ecuadorian development.[147]. The history behind the Inca drama "Ollantay", the oldest literary piece in existence for any Amerindian language in America,[122] shares some similarities with the work of Collahuazo. [137] 23% of children under five are chronically malnourished. [citation needed]. This law set the border at the river Carchi and the eastern border that stretched to Brazil at the Caquetá river. [22] It also has the fifth lowest homicide rate in the Americas. Although the new government lasted no more than two months, it had important repercussions and was an inspiration for the independence movement of the rest of Spanish America. Their movement, along with the continuing destabilizing efforts by both the elite and leftist movements, has led to a deterioration of the executive office. Roldos was immediately succeeded by Vice President Osvaldo Hurtado, who was followed in 1984 by León Febres Cordero from the Social Christian Party. Other early Ecuadorian writers include the Jesuits Juan Bautista Aguirre, born in Daule in 1725, and Father Juan de Velasco, born in Riobamba in 1727. Ecuador has often placed great emphasis on multilateral approaches to international issues. The untimely death of both the heir Ninan Cuchi and the Emperor Huayna Capac, from a European disease that spread into Ecuador, created a power vacuum between two factions. The border dispute was then submitted to Spain for arbitration from 1880 to 1910, but to no avail. Tecnocumbia and Rockola are clear examples of the influence of foreign cultures. Both sides logically presented their cases, but no one seemed to give up their claims. In the Sierra region, the streams and rivers are narrow and flow rapidly over precipitous slopes. In the Costa, the external coast has mostly intermittent rivers that are fed by constant rains from December through May and become empty riverbeds during the dry season. There are very small communities in Cuenca. In a year, the rainfall is 2162 mm | 85.1 inch. The Mariscal Sucre International Airport in Quito and the José Joaquín de Olmedo International Airport in Guayaquil have experienced a high increase in demand and have required modernization. The Napo ranges in width from 500 to 1,800 m (1,640 to 5,906 ft). Once Gran Colombia was dissolved after the death of Simón Bolívar in 1830, Ecuador inherited the same border disputes and had the need of creating its own professional military force. UN's Human Rights Council's (HRC) Universal Periodic Review (UPR) has treated the restrictions on freedom of expression and efforts to control NGOs and recommended that Ecuador should stop the criminal sanctions for the expression of opinions, and delay in implementing judicial reforms. While the most populated metropolitan areas of the country are those of Guayaquil, Quito, Cuenca, Manabí Centro (Portoviejo-Manta) and Ambato. The Ecuadorian Navy Academy (c. 1837), located in Salinas graduates the navy officers. In the 2006 FIFA World Cup, Ecuador finished ahead of Poland and Costa Rica finishing second behind Germany in Group A in the 2006 World Cup. This situation came from the improvement of the economic situation in Liguria. Ecuador is a country in western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the Equator, for which the country is named. Also, the Cauca region, which included such cities as Pasto, Popayán, and Buenaventura, had always been dependent on the Presidencia or Audiencia of Quito. Surfing in Ecuador is very popular because of the year-round steady climate. Ecuador is currently placed in 96th position of innovation in technology. The 1930s and 1940s were marked by instability and emergence of populist politicians, such as five-time President José María Velasco Ibarra. Quito is the closest capital city to the equator. Source 1: Temperatures: Climate Ecuador, Voodoo Skies: Source 2: Other: Cuenca Climate Guide : Education Universities. However, that same year, 1821, Peruvian forces participating in the Trujillo revolution occupied both Jaen and Tumbes. [63] Additionally, oil exploitation of the Amazon rainforest has led to the release of billions of gallons of untreated wastes, gas, and crude oil into the environment,[64] contaminating ecosystems and causing detrimental health effects to Amerindian peoples. The people of the coast developed a fishing, hunting, and gathering culture; the people of the highland Andes developed a sedentary agricultural way of life, and the people of the Amazon basin developed a nomadic hunting-and-gathering mode of existence. The roads of Ecuador in recent years have undergone important improvement. More rigorously, it denotes the mean and variability of meteorological variables over a time spanning from months to millions of years. The Amazonian people and the Cayapas of Coastal Ecuador were the only groups to resist Inca and Spanish domination, maintaining their language and culture well into the 21st century. [86] Pines and cedars are planted in the region of La Sierra and walnuts, rosemary, and balsa wood in the Guayas River Basin. There are also different kinds of traditional music like albazo, pasacalle, fox incaico, tonada, capishca, Bomba (highly established in Afro-Ecuadorian societies), and so on. It will transport 120 000 passagers daily. The capital is Quito.[17][18]. Its capital Quito is located only 15 miles (25 km) from a latitude of 0 degrees. In the first half of 2012, twenty private TV or radio stations were closed down. This community works independently from the "Jewish Community of Ecuador" and is composed of only 30 people. The best known art styles from Ecuador belonged to the Escuela Quiteña (Quito School), which developed from the 16th to 18th centuries, examples of which are on display in various old churches in Quito. Here, the weather is about what you probably expect from the Ecuador climate: truly tropical with temperatures usually between 80 and 90 degrees Fahrenheit. Provincial governors and councilors (mayors, aldermen, and parish boards) are directly elected. One region consolidated under a confederation called the Shyris, which exercised organized trading and bartering between the different regions. This happened a few days before San Martin's Peruvian forces could arrive and occupy Guayaquil, with the intention of annexing Guayaquil to the rest of Audiencia of Quito (Ecuador) and to the future republic of Peru. He willed that his heart be buried in Quito, his favorite city, and the rest of his body be buried with his ancestors in Cuzco. This army branch is considered the best elite force of Ecuador and is conformed by indigenous of the Amazon who combine their inherital experience for jungle dominance with modern army tactics. [citation needed]. The climates in Colombia are characterized for having tropical rainforests, savannas, steppes, deserts and mountain climate, mountain climate further divided into tierra caliente (hot land) tierra templada (temperate land) tierra fría (cold land), tierra helada (frozen land) and Páramo. The temperature here averages 25.2 °C | 77.4 °F. Climate. [29] The Guarantors of the Rio Protocol (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and the United States of America) ruled that the border of the undelineated zone was to be set at the line of the Cordillera del Cóndor. Sixto Durán Ballén, the Ecuadorian president, famously declared that he would not give up a single centimeter of Ecuador. Not in vain, Ecuador is considered one of the 17 countries where the planet's highest biodiversity is concentrated, being also the largest country with diversity per km2 in the world. In 1980, he founded the Partido Pueblo, Cambio y Democracia (People, Change, and Democracy Party) after withdrawing from the Concentración de Fuerzas Populares (Popular Forces Concentration) and governed until May 24, 1981, when he died along with his wife and the minister of defense, Marco Subia Martinez, when his Air Force plane crashed in heavy rain near the Peruvian border. The Central District of the Gran Colombia, known as Cundinamarca or New Granada (modern Colombia) with its capital in Bogota, did not recognize the separation of the Southern District of the Gran Colombia, with its capital in Quito, from the Gran Colombian federation on May 13, 1830. They were led by Juan Pío Montúfar, Quiroga, Salinas, and Bishop Cuero y Caicedo. Under President Rafael Correa, the country returned to OPEC before leaving again in 2020 under the instruction of President Moreno, citing its desire to increase crude oil importation to gain more revenue.[44][45]. This plan enabled the new democratically elected president to assume the duties of the executive office. [118] Other Amerindian languages spoken in Ecuador include Awapit (spoken by the Awá), A'ingae (spoken by the Cofan), Shuar Chicham (spoken by the Shuar), Achuar-Shiwiar (spoken by the Achuar and the Shiwiar), Cha'palaachi (spoken by the Chachi), Tsa'fiki (spoken by the Tsáchila), Paicoca (spoken by the Siona and Secoya), and Wao Tededeo (spoken by the Waorani). [79] This is explained to an extent by emigration and the economic stability achieved after adopting the U.S. dollar as official means of transaction (before 2000, the Ecuadorian sucre was prone to rampant inflation). Ecuador's economy is the eighth largest in Latin America and experienced an average growth of 4.6% between 2000 and 2006. It has around 1640 kinds of birds. [102][103], In the rural parts of Ecuador, Amerindian beliefs and Catholicism are sometimes syncretized. Institutions that have High Performance Computing centers:[150], Currently, the politics of research and investigation are managed by the National Secretary of Higher Education, Science, and Technology (Senescyt). In the case of Ecuador, Flores-based Ecuador's de jure claims on the following cedulas - Real Cedula of 1563, 1739, and 1740; with modifications in the Amazon Basin and Andes Mountains that were introduced through the Treaty of Guayaquil (1829) which Peru reluctantly signed, after the overwhelmingly outnumbered Gran Colombian force led by Antonio José de Sucre defeated President and General La Mar's Peruvian invasion force in the Battle of Tarqui. New infectious diseases such as smallpox, endemic to the Europeans, caused high fatalities among the Amerindian population during the first decades of Spanish rule, as they had no immunity. [23] Between 2006 and 2016, poverty decreased from 36.7% to 22.5% and annual per capita GDP growth was 1.5 percent (as compared to 0.6 percent over the prior two decades). The Italian government came to be more interested in the emigration phenomenon in Ecuador because of the necessity of finding an outlet for the large number of immigrants who traditionally went to the United States but who could no longer enter this country because of the new measures that imposed restrictions in the 1920s. [citation needed] In the case of engineering fields, the majority of scientific production comes from the top three polytechnic institutions: Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral - ESPOL, Universidad de Las Fuerzas Armadas - ESPE, and Escuela Politécnica Nacional EPN. [25], After nearly 300 years of Spanish rule, Quito was still a small city numbering 10,000 inhabitants. Jaime Roldós Aguilera was elected president, garnering over one million votes, the most in Ecuadorian history. [41], Ecuador joined the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in 1973 and suspended its membership in 1992. [37], A series of protests began on 3 October 2019 against the end of fuel subsidies and austerity measures adopted by President of Ecuador Lenín Moreno and his administration. Contemporary Ecuadorian scientists who have been recognized by international institutions are Eugenia del Pino (born 1945), the first Ecuadorian to be elected to the United States National Academy of Science, and Arturo Villavicencio, who was part of the working group of the IPCC, which shared the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize with Al Gore for their dissemination of the effects of climate change. However, in 2004, the National Council of Higher Education (CONESUP), started the reorganization of all the degree-granting schemes of the accredited universities in order to pair them with foreign counterparts. [88] Industrial production is directed primarily to the domestic market.

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